三分PK拾

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玉石百科

你一定沒見過,古人竟然是這樣做玉雕的

LAIYUAN:WUDEYUQI ZUOZHE:admin FABUSHIJIAN:2015-07-05 LIULAN

三分PK拾 “YU”YIYOUBAQIANNIANDELISHI,TAYUZHONGHUACHUANTONGWENHUANANYIFENGE,RONGZAIZHONGGUORENDEGUSUILI。WULUNNISHIGUYUAIHAOSHOUZANGZHE,HUANSHIGUYUYANJIURENYUAN,SHENHUOSHIZAIBOWUGUANLIGUANSHANGGUOGUYU,YIDINGHUIDUIGURENDEZHIHUI、GONGYIDAJIAZANTAN。

  GURENZAIMEIYOUXIANJINJIQIKEYIYUNYONGDEQINGKUANGXIA,DIAOZHICHUNEIMEDUOYUJIAN,NINENGXIANGXIANGGURENSHIRUHEZUODAODEME?

 

一、搗沙和研漿

 

三分PK拾 ZAIZHETULI,ZHANZHUDEYUGONGYONGSHOUNAZHUCHU,YIXIAYIXIADEYONGCHUQUDAO,YAOBASHIJIULIDESHISHAQIAODEGENGXISUI。LINGYIWEIYUGONGZUOZAIDENGZISHANG,MIANQIANFANGLEYIGEHAOXIANGCHAOCAIGUOYANGDEDASHAIZI,SHAIZIDEDIYOUXIDONG,KEYIRANGXIXIAODESHISHALOUXIAQU,CUSHAJIULIUZAISHAIZIZHONG,ZHEYANGJIUKEYIBASHISHAANZHAOKELIDAXIAOFENLEI。YUANZILIHUANYOUMUTONG、MUPENHEMAOSHUA,SHIJIANGSHAIHAODESHAZAIYONGSHUIPAOZHU,NIBAZHILEIDEZAZHIJIUHUISUIZHUSHUIPIAOLIUCHUQULE。JINGGUODAOSHAHEYANJIANGDECHENGXU,JIUKEYIDEDAOKELIJUNYUNDESHISHA。ZHEXIESHASHIYONGLAIJIEPOUYUPU、ZHUOMOYUQIDE,SUOYIJIUZUO「JIEYUSHA」、「MOYUSHA」。

 

二、開玉

還沒凋琢的玉料叫做「玉璞」。它的外表常常包裹了一些粗鬆的石頭。開玉,就是把玉璞外表別的石頭削掉。在這張圖裡,有兩個玉工,坐在大樹下的凳子上,兩人之間用木架架起了一個大玉璞。他們個拿著「條鋸」的一端,你來我往的拉著這個條鋸。條鋸上主要用來切割玉璞的,只是一條鋼絲。鋼絲是割不動玉的,所以在數之上掛著一個茶壺,壺底有洞,壺裡莊的是黑石沙和水。溷著黑石沙的水滴,一滴一滴的滴下來,滴到玉璞上,增加了條鋸的鋒利度。這樣來回的摩擦和切割,才能把玉皮子切掉。

 

三、扎砣

 

利用「扎碢」這種工具,將玉料切成方塊或方條玉工坐在「旋車」前,旋車上架著的工具,結構頗複雜。這組工具適用長木棍(又叫木軸)的一端,裝上圓形的鋼盤,這個鋼盤就叫做「扎鍋」。鋼盤的週緣很薄,像刀口一樣非常鋒利。木軸上纏繞著兩根繩子,繩子下端各繫一片木板。這兩片木板叫做「登板」。操作的時候,玉工的兩隻腳輪流踏著登板,靠麻繩牽動木軸旋轉。玉工用左手托拿著玉料,抵住正在旋轉的鋼盤的刃邊。桌子的一端放著一個盛了水和紅沙的盆子,玉工就用右手去舀沙,澆在玉料上。堅硬的解玉沙,配上旋轉而鋒利的扎邊刃,才能把玉料再切成方塊或方條。

 

四、沖碢

 

利用「沖碢」這種工具,把方塊或方條的玉料上,方方硬硬的轉角部份,「沖」成圓這個步驟也是坐在旋車上完成的,用一段厚竹枝外面繞著厚鋼圈(又叫做沖碢),配著和了水的紅沙,慢慢沖去玉塊上的方角。經過這個步驟,要凋琢的作品也大致成形了。

 

 

五、磨碢

 

三分PK拾利用「磨碢」這種工具來磨細玉器的表面。所用的工具和第三步的「扎鍋」有些相似。但扎鍋是薄而銳利的,而磨鍋厚約二、三分(大約0.6到0.9公分)。可以把玉的表面磨得細膩,發出溫潤的光澤。

 

六、掏堂

 

三分PK拾 TAOTANGJITAOTANGER。RUBIYANHU、PING、WAN、BITONG、BEIDENGYUQI,DOUYAOTAOTANGER。YAOZAIYUQISHANGXIANZHANCHUYIGEYAN,RANHOUYONGTEBIEDETUOYIDIANYIDIANDIBANEIBUDEYUMODIAO。

 

 

七、上花

 

ZAIMOHAODEQIWUSHANG,ZHUOMOCHUGEZHONGHUAWEN。CONGTUZHONGKEFAKANDAO,SHANGHUAYONGDETUO,GENGXIAO,XINGHAOYEGENGDUO。

 

八、打鉆

 

DAZHANSHIYONGYIGEGUANZHUANGMOJU,ZAIYUQISHANGZHANCHUYUANQUANZHUANGDEGOUCAO。ZHANDAOYIDINGSHENDU,BAZHONGXINDEYUANZHUDADIAO,JIKETAOTANGER。TUZHONGHUANYOUGEXIJIE,JIZAIHENGGANSHANGGUALEYIGEZHONGWU,YIZENGJIAXIANGXIADEYALI,TIGAOGONGZUOXIAOLV。

 

九、透花

 

三分PK拾 SUOYONGDEGONGJUCHENGZUO「SOUGONG」。CAOZUODESHIHOU,XIANBASOUGONGSHANGDEGANGSIJIEKAIYIDUAN,CHUANTOUZHEGEYUANDONG,ZAIBANGHAO。YUGONGDEYOUSHOUWOZHUSOUGONG,YILAIYIHUILADONGZHU,GANGSISHANGJIAJINLESHUIDESHISHA,JIUNENGANZHAOYUPIANSHANGHUADEXIANTIAOLAIQIEGELE。YINWEIYIBANSHUXIEZUOHUADEMOZHI,SHIHUIBEIMOSHUICHONGXIDIAODE,SUOYIYUGONGSHIYONGSHILIUPIDEZHILAIGOUHUACHUYAOTOUDIAODETUAN,HELESHUIDEJIEYUSHA,PEIHEGANGSIZAIYUPIANSHANGLAIHUIGEJUSHI,TUANRENGSHIQINGQINGCHUCHUDEBUHUIBEISHUIXIDIAODE。

 

十、打眼

 

三分PK拾 ZHESHIZHUANMENDUIFUXIANGBIYANHU、BANZHI、YANDAIZUIZHILEIDEXIAOJIANERYOUYOUGUDINGXINGZHUANGDEYUQI,YAOZUANKONGSHISUOYONGDETESHUJIQIAO。YINWEIZHELEIYUQITAIXIAOLE,BUFANGBIANYONGSHOUNAZHUDAZUAN,SUOYIJIUZAIDAZHUTONGZHONGZHUANGLESHUI,SHANGMIANANZHUANGMUBAN,MUBANZHONGYANGWALEDONG,DONGDEXINGZHUANGJIUHEYAOZUANKONGYANDEXIAOYUQI,XINGZHUANGXIANGTONG。BUTONGXINGZHUANGDEXIAOYUQI,YAOPEISHANGWALEBUTONGXINGZHUANGKONGDONGDEMUBAN。YUGONGDEZUOSHOUWOZHUXIAO「TIEZHONG」,YOUSHOULAZHU「BENGGONG」,YILAIYIHUIDEDAIDONGTIEZHONGFANFUXUANZHUAN,TIEZHONGXIADUANSUOQIANDEJINGANGZUAN,JIUHUIZAIYUQISHANGZUANCHUDONGLAI。

 

十一、木砣

 

BAYIDIAOZHUOHAOLEDEYUQIWAIBIAOZIXIDEMOGUANG。ZHESHISHIYONGDEGONGJUJIEGOUSHIDENGBANLIANXIZHUMUZHOU,DAIDONGYIGEYUANXINGDEZHUANPAN,ERZHEBUZOUYONGDEYUANPAN,SHIHOUHOUDE「MUTUO」,PEIYONGDESHISHAYINGDUBIJIAODI,YOUCHENG「JINSHUIHUANGBAOLIAO」,DAYUESHISHIYINGSHA(QIDU)LAIXIXIMOGUANG。

 

 

十二、皮砣

 

 

三分PK拾 YEJIUSHIZAIMUTUODEWAIMIAN,BAOSHANGNIUPIYONGMASHENGFENGHAO。ZAIJIEZHUXUANCHE,PEISHANG「QINSHUIBAOLIAO」,ZUOZUIHOUDEMOGUANG。

 

 

地址 | 庫爾勒朝陽路9號匯嘉時代廣場負一樓

 


資料來源:網絡

制玉圖片來源:網絡

玉器圖片來源:五德玉器

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